Kamis, 30 April 2009

Indonesian National Police

The Indonesian National Police , is the official police force for Indonesia. It had formerly been a part of the TNI since its independence from the Dutch. The police were formally separated from the military in April 1999, a process which was formally completed in July 2000. With 150,000 personnel, the police form a much smaller portion of the population than in most nations. The total number of national and local police in 2006 was approximately 470,000.

The strength of the Indonesian National Police stood at approximately 285,000 in 2004. The national police force was formally separated as a branch of the armed forces and placed under the Office of the President in 1999. It also includes 12,000 marine police and an estimated 40,000 People’s Security (Kamra) trainees who serve as a police auxiliary and report for three weeks of basic training each year.

When large parts of Indonesia was under Dutch colonial occupation until 1940s, police duties were performed by either military establishments or colonial police known as the veldpolitie or the field police. Japanese occupation during WW II brought changes when the Japanese formed various armed organizations to support their war. This had led to the distribution of weapons to military trained youths, which were largely confiscated from the Dutch armory.


After the Japanese occupation, the national police became an armed organization. The Indonesian police was established in 1946, and its units fought in the Indonesian National Revolution against the invading Dutch forces. The police also participated in suppressing the 1948 communist revolt in Madiun. In 1966, the police was brought under the control of Armed Forces Chief. Following the proclamation of independence, the police played a vital role when they actively supported the people’s movement to dismantle the Japanese army, and to strengthen the defense of the newly created Republic of Indonesia. The police were not combatants who were required to surrender their weapons to the Allied Forces. During the revolution of independence, the police gradually formed into what is now known as Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (Polri) or the Indonesian National Police. In 2000, the police force regained its independence and now is separate from the military.

Polri has a centralized command and divided into territorial forces i.e. provincial police (Kepolisian Daerah or Polda), regional police (Kepolisian Wilayah or Polwil), city or district police (Kepolisian Resort or Polres) and sub-district police (Kepolisian Sektor or Polsek). There are also some special branches i.e. Brigade Mobil or Brimob (mobile brigade) which have paramilitary role to conduct security stabilization operations and providing security protection for VIP or vital facilities, Polisi Udara or Air Police, Polisi Air or Marine Police, Forensics and Detachment 88, specially trained for anti-terrorist operations.

Chief of Police

  1. R Said Soekanto Tjokrodiatmodjo (29 September 1945-14 December 1959)
  2. Soekarno Djojonegoro (15 December 1959-29 December 1963)
  3. Soetjipto Danoekoesoemo (30 December 1963-8 May 1965)
  4. Soetjipto Joedodihardjo (9 May 1965-8 May 1968)
  5. Hoegeng Imam Santoso (9 May 1968-2 October 1971)
  6. Moch. Hasan (3 October 1971-1974)
  7. Widodo Budidarmo (1974-25 September 1978)
  8. Awaluddin Djamin (26 September 1978-1982)
  9. Anton Sudjarwo (1982-1986)
  10. Moch. Sanoesi (1986-19 February 1991)
  11. Kunarto (20 February 1991-April 1993)
  12. Banurusman Astrosemitro (April 1993-March 1996)
  13. Dibyo Widodo (March 1996-28 June 1998)
  14. Roesmanhadi (29 June 1998-3 January 2000)
  15. Roesdihardjo (4 January 2000-22 September 2000)
  16. Suroyo Bimantoro (23 September 2000-28 November 2001)
  17. Da'i Bachtiar (29 November 2001-7 July 2005)
  18. Sutanto (8 July 2005-30 September 2008)
  19. Bambang Hendarso Danuri (30 September 2008- ...)

At their early years, Polri used European police style ranks like inspector and commissioner. When the police was included into military structure in the 1960s, the ranks changed into military style such as captain, major and colonel. When Polri conduct transition to be fully independent out of armed forces structure at 2000, they use British style police ranks like inspector and superintendent. Now Polri return to Dutch style ranks just like their early years.
The Police ranks like this :
  • Jenderal (four star)
  • Komisaris Jenderal (three star)
  • Inspektur Jenderal (two star)
  • Brigadir Jenderal (one star)
  • Komisaris Besar (Chief Commissioner-formerly Colonel)
  • Ajun Komisaris Besar (Adjutant Chief Commissioner-formerly Lieutenant Colonel)
  • Komisaris (Commissioner-formerly Major)
  • Ajun Komisaris (Adjutant Commissioner-formerly Captain)
  • Inspektur Satu (Inspector 1st grade-formerly 1st Lieutenant)
  • Inspektur Dua (Inspector 2nd grade-formerly 2nd Lieutenant)
  • Ajun Inspektur Satu (Adjutant Inspector 1st grade)
  • Ajun Inspektur Dua (Adjutant Inspector 2nd grade)
  • Brigadir (Brigadier-formerly Sergeant Major)
  • Brigadir Kepala (Chief Brigadier-formerly Chief Sergeant)
  • Brigadir Satu (Brigadier 1st grade-formerly 1st Sergeant)
  • Brigadir Dua (Brigadier 2nd grade-formerly 2nd Sergeant)
  • Ajun Brigadir Kepala (Adjutant Chief Brigadier-formerly Chief Corporal)
  • Ajun Brigadir Satu(Adjutant Brigadier 1st grade-formerly 1st Corporal)
  • Ajun Brigadir Dua (Adjutant Brigadier 2nd grade-formerly 2nd Corporal)
  • Bhayangkara Kepala(Chief Patrolman)
  • Bhayangkara Satu (Patrolman 1st grade)
  • Bhayangkara Dua (Patrolman 2nd grade)

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